Vol. 19, Broj 1, December 2023.



Megan B. Thompson, Jordan Jeffers, Filip Kukić, Robert G. Lockie, Robin M. Orr and J. Jay Dawes
School of Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka 78000, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA, USA
Tactical Research Unit, Bond University, Robina, QLD, Australia

Original scientific article


         The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between body composition measures and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) performance between male and female Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) cadets prior to enlistment. Retrospective APFT test performance and body composition data were provided for 57 male and 17 female university ROTC cadets. Descriptive statistics were derived for all variables and separated by sex. A MANOVA model was used to determine differences between sexes in all anthropometric and fitness variables. A Pearson’s moment correlation was used to determine significant relationships between body composition and APFT measures separated by sex. Significant differences between male and female cadets for height, body mass, body fat percentage, and APFT events were found (p = 0.001-0.03). No significant differences were found between sexes for BMI (p = 0.887). Additionally, no significant relationships between anthropometric measures and fitness performance were observed among male or female cadets.

Key words: military; soldiers; push-ups; sit-ups; aerobic fitness

FULL TEXT (.pdf)


Anderson, M. K., Grier, T., Canham-Chervak, M., Bushman, T. T., & Jones, B. H. (2015). Physical training, smoking, and injury during deployment: A comparison of men and women in the US Army. Army Med Dep J, 32–38.

Army. (2012). FM 7-22 Army physical readiness training. Department of Defense.

Army. (2019). Army Combat Fitness Test, initial operating capability (Center for Initial Military Training).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Adult physical inactivity prevalence maps by race/ethnicity. Adult Physical Inactivity Prevalence Maps by Race/Ethnicity, 17.

Crawford, K., Fleishman, K., Abt, J. P., Sell, T. C., Lovalekar, M., Nagai, T., Deluzio, J., Rowe, R. S., McGrail, M. A., & Lephart, S. M. (2011). Less Body Fat Improves Physical and Physiological Performance in Army Soldiers. Military Medicine, 176(1), 35–43.

Crombie, A. P., Liu, P.-Y., Ormsbee, M. J., & Ilich, J. Z. (2012). Weight and Body-Composition Change during the College Freshman Year in Male General-Population Students and Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Cadets. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 22(6), 412–421.

Dada, E. O., Anderson, M. K., Grier, T., Alemany, J. A., & Jones, B. H. (2017). Sex and age differences in physical performance: A comparison of Army basic training and operational populations. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20, S68–S73.

Dawes, J. J., Orr, R. M., Flores, R. R., Lockie, R. G., Kornhauser, C., & Holmes, R. (2017). A physical fitness profile of state highway patrol officers by gender and age. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 29(1), 16

Friedl, K. E. (2012). Body Composition and Military Performance—Many Things to Many People. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26, S87.

Leiting, K. A. (2014). Physical and Performance Characteristics May Influence Successful Completion of Military Tasks on the Sandhurst Competition. East Tennessee State University.

Mele, P. A. (2020). Army ROTC and Military Science: Developing Trusted Army Professionals. New Directions for Student Leadership, 2020(165), 137–148.

Mukaka, M. M. (2012). A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal, 24(3), 69–71.

Navalta, J. W., Stone, W. J., & Lyons, T. S. (2019). Ethical issues relating to scientific discovery in exercise science. International Journal of Exercise Science, 12(1), 1.

Oliver, J. M., Stone, J. D., Holt, C., Jenke, S. C., Jagim, A. R., & Jones, M. T. (2017). The Effect of Physical Readiness Training on Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Freshmen Cadets. Military Medicine, 182(11), e1981–e1986.

Orr, R. M., Ford, K., & Stierli, M. (2016). Implementation of an Ability-Based Training Program in Police Force Recruits. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(10), 2781–2787.

Pierce, J. R., DeGroot, D., Grier, T., Hauret, K., Nindl, B. C., East, W., McGurk, M., & Jones, B. H. (2017). Body mass index predicts selected physical fitness attributes but is not associated with performance on military relevant tasks in U.S. Army Soldiers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport.

Roberts, B. M., Rushing, K. A., & Plaisance, E. P. (2023). Sex Differences in Body Composition and Fitness Scores in Military Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Cadets. Military Medicine, 188(1–2), e1–e5.

Roberts, D., Gebhardt, D. L., Gaskill, S. E., Roy, T. C., & Sharp, M. A. (2016). Current considerations related to physiological differences between the sexes and physical employment standards. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(6 (Suppl. 2)), S108–S120.

Scott, S. A., Simon, J. E., Van Der Pol, B., & Docherty, C. L. (2015). Risk Factors for Sustaining a Lower Extremity Injury in an Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Cadet Population. Military Medicine, 180(8), 910–916.

Steed, C. L., Krull, B. R., Morgan, A. L., Tucker, R. M., & Ludy, M.-J. (2016). Relationship Between Body Fat and Physical Fitness in Army ROTC Cadets. Military Medicine, 181(9), 1007–1012.

Stevens, J. P. (2012). Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences, Fifth Edition. Routledge.

Sudom, K. A., & Hachey, K. K. (2011). Temporal Trends in Health and Fitness of Military Personnel.

Thomas, D. Q., Lumpp, S. A., Schreiber, J. A., & Keith, J. A. (2004). Physical fitness profile of Army ROTC cadets. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(4), 904–907.

Weir, C. B., & Jan, A. (2019). BMI classification percentile and cut off points.

World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. (2001). Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79(4), 373–374.

Yanovich, R., Evans, R., Israeli, E., Constantini, N., Sharvit, N., Merkel, D., Epstein, Y., & Moran, D. S. (2008). Differences in Physical Fitness of Male and Female Recruits in Gender-Integrated Army Basic Training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(11), S654–S659.

Received: 15.9.2023.
Accepted: 20.10.2023.

Megan B. Thompson
Department of Health and Human Performance
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA