Vol. 19, Broj 1, December 2023.



Filip Kukić, Radivoje Janković and Nenad Koropanovski
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies, Belgrade, Serbia

Original scientific article


         As physical abilities are essential for good health and performance in police officers, they are also one of the major factors for the enrolment in a police academy. However, their relationship to academic success and efficacy has not yet been clearly established, especially in females. The aim of this research was to investigate the association of physical abilities with academic success measured by grade point average (GPA) and academic efficacy measured by time to graduate of female candidates for police studies. Physical abilities of 40 female candidates for the admission to the University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies were analyzed at the time of selection and their study success and efficacy were obtained after they graduated. The correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate the association of physical abilities with GPA and time to graduate. The GPA was associated with repetitive power of upper extremities and whole-body contraction extension test (WBCE). It could be concluded that students whose physical exercise culture was better developed also had stronger chances of a favorable academic outcome. It could be argued that the UCIPS students who have a better-developed exercise culture also have stronger chances of a favourable academic outcome. The results of this research could be used as the foundation for future research that would investigate the association between physical abilities and success in policing jobs. This would help in the identification of the best individuals for the job and in the development of new selection, education, and exercise programs for police officers.

Key words: recruitment; education of police officers; police; special physical education.

FULL TEXT (.pdf)


Anderson, G. S., Litzenberger, R., & Plecas, D. (2002). Physical evidence of police officer stress. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25(2), 399–420.

Anderson, G. S., Plecas, D., & Segger, T. (2001). Police officer physical ability testing – Re‐validating a selection criterion. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 24(1), 8–31.

Bandyopadhyay, A. (2015). Validity of Cooper’s 12-minute run test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in male university students. Biology of Sport, 32(1), 59–63.

Bretz, R. D. (1989). College Grade Point Average as a Predictor of Adult Success: A Meta-Analytic Review and Some Additional Evidence. Public Personnel Management, 18(1), 11–22

Christie, B. (2000). Doctors revise declaration of Helsinki. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 321(7266), 913.

Danbert, S. J., Pivarnik, J. M., McNeil, R. N., & Washington, I. J. (2014). Academic Success and Retention: The Role of Recreational Sports Fitness Facilities. Recreational Sports Journal, 38(1), 14–22.

Dimitrijević, R., Koropanovski, N., Dopsaj, M., Vučković, G., & Janković, R. (2014). The influence of different physical education programs on police students’ physical abilities. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 37(4), 794–808.

Dopsaj, M., Milosevic, M., & Blagojevic, M. (2000). An analysis of the reliability and factorial validity of selected muscle force mechanical characteristics during isometric multi-joint test.

Dopsaj, M., Nenasheva, A. V., Tretiakova, T. N., Syromiatnikova, Y. A., Surina-Marysheva, E. F., Marković, S., & Dopsaj, V. (2019). Handgrip muscle force characteristics with general reference values at Chelyabinsk and Belgrade students. Human Sport Medicine, 19(2), 27–36.

Ebben, W. P., Wurm, B., VanderZanden, T. L., Spadavecchia, M. L., Durocher, J. J., Bickham, C. T., & Petushek, E. J. (2011). Kinetic Analysis of Several Variations of Push-Ups. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(10), 2891.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). Prentice Hall Inc.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R. and Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). NY: Prentice Hall Inc.

Janković, R., & Koropanovski, N. (2017). Trend of changes of student results at the Academy of criminalistic and police studies entrance exam. Nauka, Bezbednost, Policija, 22(1), 93–110.

Kolarević, D., Dimitrijević, R., Vučković, G., Koropanovski, N., & Dopsaj, M. (2014). Relations between psychological characteristics and physical abilities in a sample of female police candidates. The Open Sports Sciences Journal, 7(1), 22–28.

Koropanovski, N., Kukić, F., Janković, R., Dimitrijević, R., Dawes, J. J., Lockie, R. G., & Dopsaj, M. (2020). Impact of physical Fitness on recruitment and its association to study outcomes in police students. South African Journal of Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 42(1), 23–34.

Kukić, F., & Maamari, M. (2017). Evaluation of aerobic fitness in Abu Dhabi Policemen. Archibald Reiss Days, 3, 7.

Lagestad, P., & van den Tillaar, R. (2014). A comparison of training and physical performance of police students at the start and the end of three-year police education. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(5), 1394–1400.

Lockie, R. G., Balfany, K., Bloodgood, A. M., Moreno, M. R., Cesario, K. A., Dulla, J. M., Dawes, J. J., & Orr, R. M. (2019). The influence of physical fitness on reasons for academy separation in law enforcement recruits. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(3).

Lonsway, K. A. (2003). Tearing down the wall: Problems with consistency, validity, and adverse impact of physical agility testing in police selection. Police Quarterly, 6(3), 237–277.

Markovic, G., Dizdar, D., Jukic, I., & Cardinale, M. (2004). Reliability and factorial validity of squat and countermovement jump tests. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(3), 551–555.

Markovic, G., & Jaric, S. (2004). Movement performance and body size: The relationship for different groups of tests. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1–2(92), 139–149.

Markovic, G., Jukic, I., Milanovic, D., & Metikos, D. (2007). Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(2), 543–549.

Morris, J. S., Link, J., Martin, J. C., & Carrier, D. R. (2020). Sexual dimorphism in human arm power and force: Implications for sexual selection on fighting ability. Journal of Experimental Biology, 223(2), jeb212365.

Nora, A., Barlow, E., & Crisp, G. (2005). Student persistence and degree attainment beyond the first year in college: The need for research. In College Student Retention: Formula for Student Success. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Pihlainen, K., Santtila, M., Häkkinen, K., & Kyröläinen, H. (2018). Associations of physical fitness and body composition characteristics with simulated military task performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(4), 1089–1098.

Rabe-Hemp, C. E. (2009). POLICEwomen or PoliceWOMEN?: Doing gender and police work. Feminist Criminology, 4(2), 114–129. Scopus.

Shusko, M., Benedetti, L., Korre, M., Eshleman, E. J., Farioli, A., Christophi, C. A., & Kales, S. N. (2017). Recruit fitness as a predictor of police academy graduation. Occupational Medicine, 67(7), 555–561.

Soh, K. C. (2010). Grade point average: What’s wrong and what’s the alternative? Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 33(1), 27–36.

Sorensen, L., Smolander, J., Louhevaara, V., Korhonen, O., & Oja, P. (2000). Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: A 15-year follow-up study. Occupational Medicine, 50(1), 3–10.

Starheim, R. P. (2019). Women in Policing Breaking Barriers and Blazing a Path | Office of Justice Programs [Special Report].

Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K., & Ambroży, T. (2013). Sexual dimorphism in anthropometric and fitness measurements of top ju-jitsu contestants. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 4, 145–151.

Strating, M., Bakker, R. H., Dijkstra, G. J., Lemmink, K. A. P. M., & Groothoff, J. W. (2010). A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police. Occupational Medicine, 60(4), 255–260.

Received: 15.11.2023.
Approved: 11.12.2023.

doc. Filip Kukić
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Banja Luka, Banja Luka
Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina